The Capital - Summary and Key Ideas

"The Capital" is a critical analysis of capitalist society, in which Karl Marx examines the dynamics of capitalism, the exploitation of the working class, and the role of capital in the economy.

"The Capital" is aimed at readers who want to gain a deep understanding of the economic laws of motion of modern society and are willing to learn new concepts and think independently.

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The Capital

Key ideas


Marx's critique of political-economic science is a comprehensive tool for uncovering hidden social and economic realities and challenging the structures of capitalist society.


Commodities - The Masks of Social Labor: Commodities hold a dual use and exchange value, yet their true worth stems from concealed social labor.

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Profit - The Fruit of Unpaid Labor: Profit in capitalism emerges from surplus value, the result of unpaid labor by workers.

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The Unique Commodity of Labor Power: Labor power is unique in capitalism, as it produces more value than its cost.

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The Dual Reality of Alienation and Exploitation: Workers face exploitation and alienation in capitalism, stripped of the full value of their labor.

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Class Struggle - The Engine of Historical Development: Inherent class struggles between bourgeoisie and proletariat fuel historical progress.

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The Concentration of Wealth - A Recipe for Instability: Capitalist competition leads to wealth concentration, sowing seeds for social unrest.

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Capitalist Crises - The Product of Overproduction: Capitalism's propensity for overproduction triggers recurrent crises, destabilizing the system.

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Capitalism - A Transient Historical Phase: Capitalism, seen as a specific stage in economic development, is set to yield to socialism due to its inherent contradictions.

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Summary & Review

In "Capital", Karl Marx scrutinizes capitalism, revealing its inner workings and inherent contradictions. He explains how commodities, the cornerstone of capitalist production, conceal the social labor that contributes to their value. This allows for the extraction of surplus value, the source of capitalist profit, from workers' unpaid labor.

Karl Marx

Karl Marx was a German philosopher, economist, and social theorist of the 19th century, who is considered one of the most influential thinkers in history. His theories and criticisms of capitalist society significantly shaped the labor movement and the development of socialist and communist ideologies.

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